Blog Post

Nutrition for Bone Health

Milk being poured into a bone

Having strong and healthy bones as you get older is an absolute blessing. It can help prolong independence and improve overall quality of life. Nutrition plays a massive role in helping to keep bone mineral density high as well.

Making Your Youth Count

It’s a fact that most bone mass is laid down in the first 25-30 years of your life. This mass is carried into old age when bones start to degrade and osteoporosis often occurs.

There are steps you can take later in life that can help reduce the chances of osteoporosis or sometimes even increase bone mineral density. It is never too late to make changes. But it is even better if you can start early.

Building more bone mineral density earlier in life is protective in old age. The best way to do this is to pair a nutritious diet, focusing on the following nutrients with exercise involving high load or impact.

For example, swimming is not high load and therefore will not contribute much to bone mass. Weight lifting, on the other hand, is high load. Sports that involve that involve running or jumping will also help too.


insta post calcium

We already know that calcium is important for strong and healthy bones.

It is drilled into people from a young age.

And while some people try to downplay the value of calcium, it is clear that it plays a role in bone mineral density.

Calcium makes up the dominant part of hydroxyapatite, which is the structure that constitutes our bones and teeth.

Dairy is the most common source of calcium. But non-dairy sources include spinach, broccoli, bony fish and soybeans, amongst other calcium-rich foods.

If you are drinking a non-dairy milk alternative, it is worth making sure it’s calcium-fortified too.

If reaching calcium needs through food is unrealistic, supplementation is also an option.

Vitamin D

The active form of vitamin D is D3. This promotes the storage of calcium in bones.

While a lot of our vitamin D comes from exposure to the sun, we still can meet some of our needs through food.

Vitamin D increases the absorption of calcium from the food you eat to help facilitate increased deposition to the bone. Consume a diet with adequate dairy, egg and fish to reap the benefits of vitamin D.

To measure your vitamin D levels, it is worth going to your GP and getting a blood test. Similarly to calcium, if you are not able to meet your needs through your lifestyle, supplementation can be an option as well.


Unlike calcium, zinc and protein, potassium isn’t part of the bone matrix. It is still, however, extremely important for its maintenance.

To put it simply, while vitamin D3 puts calcium in the bone, potassium helps keep it there.

Low potassium levels increase the acidity of the blood. To stabilise this acidity, the body recruits calcium from the bone matrix as a buffer. This could potentially reduce bone mass.

It makes sense to consume a potassium-rich diet. This includes foods such as bananas, beetroot, sweet potato and more. For a more complete list of potassium-rich foods, refer to the following comprehensive list.


Red Meat and Fish

We typically associate protein with the growth of muscle, but it is important to the growth of bone, too.

Bone is ~35% made up of collagen, which is a form of protein.

Consuming a sufficient amount of protein can help keep bone mineral density high.

Some people claim that high-protein diets can reduce bone mineral density due to a concept called the acid-ash hypothesis. This is easily debunked by research highlighting that relatively high protein intakes lead to HIGHER bone mineral density than low protein intakes, assuming calcium intake is also sufficient.


Magnesium has a role to play in calcium absorption. By consuming magnesium in the form of dark leafy greens, beans and whole grains you can help your body absorb as much calcium from the food you eat as possible.

This is also a relevant point to consider when people downplay calcium’s importance. Often the examples used to explain why calcium is not important involve looking at populations with significantly higher than average magnesium intake.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is essential for collagen synthesis. Collagen is an essential connective tissue found throughout the body, including, in the connections involving bones. Hence, it can be considered a focal nutrient for bone health.

Vitamin C deficiency presents as scurvy where weak collagen makes for poor wound healing, unhealthy gums and no surprise, weak bones. To any deficiencies that impede bone health, consume a variety of fruits and vegetables every day.

This is a simple one though. Having a tonne of vitamin C does not seem to help much beyond just having a more normal amount. It is important to avoid having an insufficient amount in your diet though.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is not a direct constituent of the bone matrix. However, it is an essential co-factor to enzymes within the matrix. These enzymes are important for bone building and maintenance, so keeping them healthy is key. Vitamin K is mostly found in dark, leafy green vegetables.

Low vitamin K intake has been linked with low bone mineral density. Prioritising this is important if your goal is to maintain/improve bone health.


Copper is involved in a special cross-linkage between collagen and elastin (two bodily connective tissues) and as such, is important to bone health. Copper can be found in seeds and pulses.


A diet that helps your bones is relatively similar to an overall healthy diet.

Bone health benefits from a decent amount of protein, various fruits and vegetables, nuts and whole grains.

This lines up with a good quality diet regardless. Combining this with physical activity can significantly help your bone health.

By Aidan Muir

Aidan is a Brisbane based dietitian who prides himself on staying up-to-date with evidence-based approaches to dietetic intervention. He has long been interested in all things nutrition, particularly the effects of different dietary approaches on body composition and sports performance. Due to this passion, he has built up an extensive knowledge base and experience in multiple areas of nutrition and is able to help clients with a variety of conditions. One of Aidan’s main strengths is his ability to adapt plans based on the client's desires. By having such a thorough understanding of optimal nutrition for different situations he is able to develop detailed meal plans and guidance for clients that can contribute to improving the clients overall quality of life and performance. He offers services both in-person and online.